Setting out to map the major milestones affecting the development of stock markets since the start of the 17th century is to go on a rollercoaster ride through history.
First publicly traded company
1602 Amsterdam Stock Exchange becomes the first known stock exchange as we would recognise one today. The Dutch East India Company is established as a chartered company (a chartered company is a company owned by investors or shareholders).
It is popularly regarded as the world's first publicly traded company. It is also known as the VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie). It sported what is possibly the world's first corporate logo, a capital letter 'V' with an 'O' to the left and a 'C' to the right.
1605 The German word Börse (the equivalent of the French bourse) is documented in writing for the first time as a designation for the meeting of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, which traces its ultimate roots to Assmption Day in 1150.
1668 Sveriges Riksbank, also known as the Bank of Sweden, is founded, making it the world's first central bank.
1688 The book Confusions of Confusions by Joseph de La Vega is the earliest known book about stock market trading.
1694 The Bank of England is established, by Scottish entrepreneur, William Paterson. It began life as a private sector company.
First big bubble
1711 The South Sea Company is set up to enable British trade with South America. Demand for its stock is intense. This leads to the irrational market phenomenon known simply as the South Sea Bubble.
1720 South Sea Bubble bursts. UK parliament passes the Bubble Act. This meant only royal chartered companies could issue public shares.
1771 Founding of Wiener Börse AG (Vienna Stock Exchange).
1773 Boston Tea Party protest against British taxation without representation practice, paving the way for revolution.
1776 American Declaration of Independence represents the culmination of that revolution.
1790 Philadelphia Stock Exchange launched as the Board of Brokers of Philadelphia.
1791 First Bank of the United States chartered.
1792 Butonwood Agreement signed by 24 stockbrokers under a Buttonwood tree outside 68 Wall Street creates the New York Stock Exchange & Board.
New century new moves
1800 Dutch East India Company nationalised. Banque de France founded.
1801 London Stock Exchange officially launched.
1811 First Bank of the United States 20-year charter not renewed.
1816 Second Bank of the United States chartered.
1825 Companies allowed to issue shares on London Stock Exchange.
1836 Second Bank of the United States 20-year charter not renewed.
1863 The New York Stock Exchange & Board is renamed New York Stock Exchange. Stockholm Stock Exchange is founded.
1861 Toronto Stock Exchange launches in Canada.
1878 Floor trading begins at the Tokyo Stock Exchange.
1886 Charles Dow creates his first average of industrial stocks, the forerunner to what is now the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
1891 The Association of Stockbrokers in Hong Kong established.
From Crash to Crash
1913 US Federal Reserve created as the US central bank.
1929 Black Tuesday, 29 October: Wall Street Crash marks the start of what came to be known as The Great Depression.