CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 79% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.
US English

Inflation trading: the value of money is changing, says Tim Worstall

By Tim Worstall


Inflation trading: Business and economics writer Tim Worstall, senior fellow of the Adam Smith Institute and former metals trader
Inflation trading: Business and economics writer Tim Worstall, senior fellow of the Adam Smith Institute and former metals trader

Tim Worstall writes for on inflation trading:

In these troubled times, when we face the first concerted inflationary pressures in a generation, it's necessary to walk back to earlier wisdom and realise what inflation really is. It is, no more and no less, a change in the value of money. So, when there's inflation that's what will happen, money will change in value. The effect of this is that FX rates will change by relative inflation rates – the US Dollar / Swiss Franc rate (USD / CHF), or the Euro to Turkish Lira (EUR / TRY) one, will over time be defined by the relative inflation rates in the respective countries.

Inflation rates will affect trading in forex pairs like USD/CHF

For us, trading in a time of inflation, that's what we need to grasp. It's money itself that's changing. As to our distinction between investing and trading we should adopt that old saw from the London stock market – short term is now, long term is after lunch. Short term is trading, long term is investing. The distinction matters because the effects of inflation change over timescales.

Inflation is not prices changing – wheat up, apples down. That's relative prices changes. Inflation is the general price level changing – or, to put it the correct way around, the value of money as compared to real goods and services changing. Inflation, by definition, is a whole system effect, not something that affects the odd corner here and there. We also have that old banking saw to add to the stock exchange one – banks will repeat the same mistake only when all those who remember the last time have just retired. Which is just about where we are with inflation. As a general, global, phenomenon the last great inflation was in the 1970s. 50 years later the greybeards who recall that are shuffling off this mortal coil and we've got to try and recall what they learned back then.

The secret at the heart of this is to grasp that central point – inflation is a change in the value of money.

What is your sentiment on CHF/TRY?

Vote to see Traders sentiment!

Inflation is higher in the Turkish Lira than in the Euro - for the moment (EUR / TRY)

The most obvious effect here is in exchange rates. Different forms of money can change value at different rates, inflation in Turkish Lira is higher – for the moment at least – than that in the Euro. Wheat hasn't changed price or value (well, OK, war, Ukraine, maybe it has but we're looking just at the inflation aspect here, we can have relative and general price changes at the same time) but one bushel will over time be worth different amounts of TRY and EUR. Therefore, so too with EUR and TRY change in their relative values - FX rates change. Over the long term it is an economic standard that it is relative inflation rates that determine FX rates. That long term can be a long time mind. CHF:USD was 4.3:1 in 1950, it's about 1:1 today. Turns out Swiss bankers take more care of the value of money than American politicians, funny that.

This certainty does not work over shorter timescales though. The last 5 years has seen that same CHF:USD wander around between 1.02 to 0.88 and back. No clear link with relative inflation rates over that period, even if we'd insist it will assert itself over 80 years. Over very short timescales, by the pip this morning, FX rates are closer to Brownian motion, even quantum. Timescale matters but inflation and the price of money will out eventually. The inflation trading trick is to be there when reality overcomes the randomness. 


1.09 Price
-0.550% 1D Chg, %
Long position overnight fee -0.0080%
Short position overnight fee -0.0003%
Overnight fee time 22:00 (UTC)
Spread 0.00006


0.66 Price
+0.000% 1D Chg, %
Long position overnight fee -0.0073%
Short position overnight fee -0.0009%
Overnight fee time 22:00 (UTC)
Spread 0.00006


147.99 Price
+0.490% 1D Chg, %
Long position overnight fee 0.0108%
Short position overnight fee -0.0190%
Overnight fee time 22:00 (UTC)
Spread 0.010


1.26 Price
-0.360% 1D Chg, %
Long position overnight fee -0.0047%
Short position overnight fee -0.0035%
Overnight fee time 22:00 (UTC)
Spread 0.00013

If money changes its value this also changes the relative values of different types of equities. Think of tech companies, spending vast sums now in order to corner a market in two or 5 years' time. The profits will be immense – well, we hope they will be. So, consider the tech stocks which are the basis of the famous ARK Innovation Exchange Traded Fund (ARKK), just as an example and no more. Think also of profitable companies that pay heavy dividends right now – 'baccy, booze, the type of firms which underpin the Vanguard High Dividend fund (VYM). Inflation isn't going to change the glory of all conquering tech. Nor is it likely to change consumption of fast moving consumer goods and the like. But if the value of money changes then the two business models change in relative value. High 8% inflation means those dividends this year are worth more, and those all concquering monopoly profits in 5 years are worth less. This is the kind of inflation trading insight that can tell us if it's time to go long, or short, on certain types of stocks.

The ARK Innovation ETF (ARKK) is based on innovative tech stocks

Inflation means – just as does the closely related issue of rising interest rates – that sooner is worth more than later. Even the same amounts of money, the same successes, are worth different amounts dependent upon the inflation rate. We face the same time scale problem as we do with FX though. While this is absolutely and inescapably true the time period over which it takes effects is variable. A straight trade based upon the insight and that alone could be undermined by other market movements. Even though that insight is inescapably true.

There's another way of making much the same point. Inflation is a change in the value of money over time. Therefore when money becomes more important when inflation is higher – just as is true of higher interest rates. Things will change in relative value as inflation changes based upon when those things throw off cash that can be collected by investors – or traders, of course.  

This doesn't mean that tech is worth less, nor that future monopolies are worth less than dividends now. It's that the money picked up from those different things is changing value because of the time that it is picked up. Inflation is a change in the value of money, that's the real and true definition of it. So, inflation changes the value of money, doesn't it?

Tim Worstall is a writer on business and economics and a senior fellow of the Adam Smith Institute. He has written for CapX, the New York Times, Forbes, the Times and the Wall Street Journal. He has worked as a trader in rare metals such as scandium. He is the author of The No Breakfast Fallacy: Why the Club of Rome was wrong about us running out of minerals and metals.

Markets in this article

31.66191 USD
-0.21403 -0.680%
0.87436 USD
0.00038 +0.040%
ARK Innovation ETF
46.29 USD
-0.81 -1.730%
Vanguard High Dividend Yield Index Fund ETF
106.81 USD
0.92 +0.870%

Related topics

Rate this article

Related reading

The difference between trading assets and CFDs
The main difference between CFD trading and trading assets, such as commodities and stocks, is that you don’t own the underlying asset when you trade on a CFD.
You can still benefit if the market moves in your favour, or make a loss if it moves against you. However, with traditional trading you enter a contract to exchange the legal ownership of the individual shares or the commodities for money, and you own this until you sell it again.
CFDs are leveraged products, which means that you only need to deposit a percentage of the full value of the CFD trade in order to open a position. But with traditional trading, you buy the assets for the full amount. In the UK, there is no stamp duty on CFD trading, but there is when you buy stocks, for example.
CFDs attract overnight costs to hold the trades (unless you use 1-1 leverage), which makes them more suited to short-term trading opportunities. Stocks and commodities are more normally bought and held for longer. You might also pay a broker commission or fees when buying and selling assets direct and you’d need somewhere to store them safely.
Capital Com is an execution-only service provider. The material provided on this website is for information purposes only and should not be understood as an investment advice. Any opinion that may be provided on this page does not constitute a recommendation by Capital Com or its agents. We do not make any representations or warranty on the accuracy or completeness of the information that is provided on this page. If you rely on the information on this page then you do so entirely on your own risk.

Still looking for a broker you can trust?

Join the 570.000+ traders worldwide that chose to trade with

1. Create & verify your account 2. Make your first deposit 3. You’re all set. Start trading